Marriage can’t change Caste Certificate
A person who does not belong to a Scheduled Tribe or a Scheduled Caste category by birth, simply by virtue of marrying a person belonging thereto cannot gain the status of that particular caste or tribe.
Meaning Of Caste –
The words caste, race, or tribe or religious minorities in India. A caste is an association of families which practice the custom of endogamy i.e. which permits marriages amongst the members belonging to such families only. Caste rules prohibit its members from marrying outside their caste. There are sub-groups amongst the castes which sometimes inter-marry and sometimes do not. Caste is based on various factors, sometimes it may be a class, a race or a racial unit. A caste has nothing to do with wealth. The caste of a person is governed by his birth in a family
Definition of Schedule Caste and Schedule Tribe –
Article 366 (24) & 366 (25) defines the terms “Scheduled Castes” and “Scheduled Tribes”. It reads as under:
“(24) “Scheduled Castes” means such castes, races or tribes or parts of or groups within such castes, races or tribes as are deemed under article 341 to be Scheduled Castes for the purposes of this Constitution.”
“(25) “Scheduled Tribes” means such tribes or tribal communicates or parts of or groups within such tribes or tribal communities as are deemed under article 342 to be Scheduled Tribes for the purposes of this Constitution.
Purpose of Reservation –
The economic empowerment is a fundamental right to the poor and the State is enjoined under Articles 15(3), 46 and 39 to provide them opportunities. Thus, education, employment, and economic empowerment are some of the programmes of the State has evolved and also provided reservation in admission into educational institutions, or in case of other economic benefits under Articles 15(4) and 46, or an appointment to an office or a post under the State under Article 16(4). Therefore, when a member is transplanted into the Dalits, Tribes, and OBCs, he/she must of necessity also have had undergone the same handicaps and must have been subjected to the same disabilities, disadvantages, indignities or sufferings so as to entitle the candidate to avail the facility of reservation. A candidate who had the advantageous start in life being born in Forward Caste and had march of advantageous life but is transplanted in Backward Caste by adoption or marriage or conversion, does not become eligible to the benefit of reservation either under Article 15(4) or 16(4), as the case may be. Acquisition of the status of Scheduled Caste etc. by voluntary mobility into these categories would play fraud on the Constitution and would frustrate the benign constitutional policy under Articles 15(4) and 16(4) of the Constitution.
A Marriage of a General category to Schedule Caste –
Whether a lady marrying a Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribe or OBC citizen, or one transplanted by adoption or any other voluntary act, ipso facto, becomes entitled to claim reservation under Articles 15(4) or 16(4), as the case may be? It is seen that Dalits and Tribes suffered social and economic disabilities recognized by Articles 17 and 15(2). Consequently, they became socially, culturally and educationally backward; the OBCs also suffered social and educational backwardness. The object of reservation is to remove these handicaps, disadvantages, sufferings, and restrictions to which the members of the Dalits or Tribes or OBCs were subjected and was sought to bring them in the mainstream of the nation’s life by providing them opportunities and facilities.
A person who didn’t belong to a Scheduled Tribe category by birth, he/she could not have gained status thereof, by simply marrying a person belonging to such category. This is one of the important facts relating to inter-caste marriage in India.